矿床地质:2023,Vol.>>Issue(1):128-156

斑岩铜-钼-金矿床:构造环境、成矿作用与控制因素
昆明理工大学 国土资源工程学院, 有色金属矿产地质调查中心 西南地质调查所, 云南 昆明 650093;中国科学院矿产资源研究重点实验室 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所, 北京 100029;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;昆明理工大学 国土资源工程学院, 有色金属矿产地质调查中心 西南地质调查所, 云南 昆明 650093;云南冶金资源股份有限公司, 云南 昆明 651100
Tectonic setting, mineralization and ore-controlling factors of porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits
YANG Hang,QIN KeZhang,WU Peng,WANG Feng,CHEN FuChuan
(Faculty of Land Resource Engineering/Southwest of Geological Survey, Geological Survey Center for Non-ferrous Mineral Resources, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, Yunnan, China;Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;Faculty of Land Resource Engineering/Southwest of Geological Survey, Geological Survey Center for Non-ferrous Mineral Resources, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, Yunnan, China;Yunnan Metallurgy Resources Exploration Co., Ltd., Kunming 651100, Yunnan, China)
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投稿时间:2022-06-20   修订日期:2023-01-06      网络发布日期:2023-03-07
中文摘要:斑岩型矿床作为全球Cu、Mo、Au、Re等战略性矿产的主要来源,是国际矿床学界和矿业界长期关注的热点。最新研究表明,斑岩矿床既可以产于俯冲带岩浆弧环境,也可以产于与俯冲无关的非弧环境(主要包括碰撞造山环境、陆内造山环境以及活化克拉通边缘及内部),后者发育于中国大陆。文章在总结全球斑岩矿床时空分布规律的基础上,重点从成矿斑岩成因与成矿动力学机制、成矿金属来源、蚀变-矿化分带等方面,综述了2类斑岩矿床的研究进展,阐释并总结了控制斑岩成矿的主要因素与机制,以及相关研究方法。研究表明,全球斑岩矿床集中产于3大成矿域,形成时代以中、新生代为主。其中,环太平洋成矿域斑岩矿床时空分布不均,集中发育于美洲西海岸,主要形成于白垩纪以来较年轻的几个短暂时期;古亚洲洋成矿域斑岩矿床形成时间跨度于奥陶纪—早白垩世,具有“西Cu-Au东Cu-Mo、早Cu-Au晚Cu-Mo”的成矿特征;特提斯成矿域主要发育三叠纪以来的斑岩矿床,主体沿造山带分布,时间分布不均,同一构造带内发育不同时期的斑岩成矿作用;中国斑岩矿床与3大成矿域既显示出对应性,也有独特性和复杂性。弧环境成矿岩浆、金属Cu(Au)主要来源于交代地幔楔,大洋岩石圈板块俯冲是其根本性动力学机制;而非弧环境成矿岩浆、金属Cu(Au)主要来自镁铁质新生/拆沉下地壳或富集地幔,大陆碰撞和陆内俯冲是其主要诱发机制。碰撞造山环境斑岩矿床矿化主要发生在叠加于钾硅酸盐化之上的绢英岩化阶段有别于弧斑岩矿床。两类斑岩均具有高氧逸度、富水和挥发分等特征,岩浆源区、岩浆性质、岩浆混合作用等可能是大型斑岩矿床的控制因素。岩浆岩Hf-Nd同位素、锆石和磷灰石等岩浆副矿物、镁铁质包体等,为约束斑岩成矿岩浆条件及其演变过程提供了思路。
Abstract:Porphyry deposits, globally the main sources of strategic minerals such as Cu, Mo, Au and Re, have always been the hot topics for international mineral deposit researchers and mining indreustry. The latest research indicates that porphyry deposits formed in either the magmatic arc setting of subduction zone or non-arc setting unrelated to subduction (mainly includes collisional orogenic setting, intracontinental orogenic setting, and in the edge and interior of re-activated craton), and the latter is widely formed in Chinese mainland. By summarizing the spatio-temporal distribution of global porphyry deposits, this paper focuse on discussing the research progress of two types of porphyry deposits from the aspects of petrogenesis and metallogenic dynamic mechanism, source of oreforming metals, alteration-mineralization zoning, and then discusses and summarizes the main ore-controlling factors and mechanisms controlling porphyry mineralization, as well as related research methods. The research shows that porphyry deposits are concentrated in the three major tectonic, and are mainly formed in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Among them, porphyry deposits in the Circum Pacific metallogenic domain are distributed unevenly in time and space, mainly developed in the West Continental margin of America, and mainly formed in several short periods since the Cretaceous; The porphyry deposits in the Paleo-Asian Ocean metallogenic domain are formed in the Ordovician to early Cretaceous, and show the metallogenic characteristics of "Western Cu-Au, eastern Cu-Mo, early Cu-Au and late Cu-Mo"; In the Tethys metallogenic domain, porphyry deposits are mainly formed since the Triassic, they are distributed along the orogenic belts, but the temporal distribution is uneven, and the porphyry mineralization formed in different periods in the same tectonic belt; At the same time, the porphyry deposits in China have correspondency, uniqueness and complexity with the three metallogenic domains. The ore-forming magmas and Cu(Au) metals in arc setting are mainly derived from metasomatic mantle wedge, and the subduction of oceanic lithosphere plate is the fundamental dynamic mechanism. In contrast, the oreforming magmas and Cu(Au) in non-arc setting are mainly derived from the mafic juvenile/delaminated lower crust or enriched mantle, and continental collision and intracontinental subduction are the main inducing mechanisms. The mineralization of porphyry deposits in collisional orogenic setting mainly forms in phyllic alteration stage superimposed on the K-silicatie zones, which is different from arc porphyry deposits. The two types of oreforming magmas are characterized by high oxygen fugacity, rich water content and volatile components. We suggest that magma source, magma properties and magma mixing may be the ore-controlling factors of large porphyry deposits. Hf-Nd isotope of magmatic rocks, magmatic accessory minerals such as zircon and apatite, and mafic enclaves may provide ideas to constrain the magmatic conditions and evolution process of porphyry mineralization.
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基金项目:本文得到国家自然科学基金项目(编号:41102049)、云南省“万人计划”青年拔尖人才专项(编号:YNWR-QNBJ-2018-272)、云南省矿产资源预测评价工程实验室(2010)和云南省地质过程与矿产资源创新团队(2012)联合资助
引用文本:
杨航,秦克章,吴鹏,王峰,陈福川.2023.斑岩铜-钼-金矿床:构造环境、成矿作用与控制因素[J].矿床地质,42(1):128~156
YANG Hang,QIN KeZhang,WU Peng,WANG Feng,CHEN FuChuan.2023.Tectonic setting, mineralization and ore-controlling factors of porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits[J].Mineral Deposits42(1):128~156
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