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Abstract:Large and superlarge mineral deposits have abundant mineral reserves and special metallogenic characteristics as well as considerable economic value and strategic significance. According to rough estimates, large and superlarge mineral deposits only account for 5%～10% of the total deposits but provide 30%～50% of the world's mineral resources/reserves. They play a decisive role in the sustainable economic and social development in a certain country or even in the whole world. The World Metallogenic Map of Large and Superlarge Mineral Deposits on the scale of 1∶25 000 000 was compiled by Pei Rongfu, D. V. Rundquist, Mei Yanxiong and some others in 2006 and published by the Geological Publishing House in 2009. In the map, three major categories of mineral resources (energy mineral resources, metallic mineral resources and nonmetallic mineral resources), 22 minerals and 445 large and superlarge mineral deposits are plotted. According to the global geological tectonic settings and metallogenic characteristics, four metallogenic domains, namely, Laurasia, Gondwana, Tethys and circum-Pacific, and 21 gigantic metallogenic districts, have been distinguished. Located in the northern part of the earth, the Laurasia metallogenic domain traverses North America, Europe and Asia and is composed of six gigantic metallogenic districts, i.e., North America, Greenland, Europe, Ural-Mongolia, Siberia and Sino-Korea. it is characterized by large-scale mineralizations of natural gas, coals, iron, potash salt, oil, uranium, manganese, chromium, lead, zinc, nickel, tungsten, molybdenum, antimony, gold, silver, phosphorus and diamond. The metallogenic epochs run through all the geological ages, mainly Paleozoic and subordinately Mesozoic and Proterozoic. Lying in the southern part of the earth, the Gondwana metallogenic domain runs across South America, Africa, Oceania and Asia and comprises five gigantic metallogenic districts, namely, South America, Africa-Arabia, India, Australia and Antarctic. It is featured by large-scale mineralizations of oil, gas, bauxite, diamond, lead, zinc, copper, nickel, iron, gold, chromium, tin and uranium. The metallogenic epochs also go through all the geological ages, with Proterozoic and Cenozoic being dominant, and Archean and Mesozoic possessing the subordinate importance. Running across the central part of the earth, the Tethys metallogenic domain straddles North America, Europe, Africa and Asia and is made up of five gigantic metallogenic districts, namely, Caribbean, Mediterranean, West Asia, Himalaya and Indo-China Peninsula. It is characterized by large-scale mineralizations of tin, potash salt, lead, zinc, bauxite, copper and molybdenum. The metallogenic epochs are dominated by Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Distributed around the Pacific Ocean, the circum-Pacific metallogenic domain straddles Asia, Oceania, North America and South America and consists of five gigantic metallogenic districts, namely, North Cordilleran, Andean, Chokochi-Okhotsk, East Asia and Irian-New Zealand. It is characterized by large-scale mineralizations of copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, nickel, tungsten, tin, lead and zinc. The most important metallogenic epochs are Mesozoic-Cenozoic.
keywords:geology, metallogenic domain, metallogenic district, metallogenic characteristics, global metallogeny
梅燕雄,裴荣富,杨德凤,戴自希,李进文,徐丛荣,瞿泓滢.2009.Global metallogenic domains and districts[J].Mineral Deposits28(4):383~389