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:2019,Vol.>>Issue(4):898-916

铝土矿(岩)型锂资源及其开发利用潜力
中国地质大学地球科学与资源学院, 北京 100083;自然资源部成矿作用与资源评价重点实验室, 中国地质科学院矿产资源研究所, 北京 100037,自然资源部成矿作用与资源评价重点实验室, 中国地质科学院矿产资源研究所, 北京 100037,自然资源部成矿作用与资源评价重点实验室, 中国地质科学院矿产资源研究所, 北京 100037,自然资源部成矿作用与资源评价重点实验室, 中国地质科学院矿产资源研究所, 北京 100037,自然资源部成矿作用与资源评价重点实验室, 中国地质科学院矿产资源研究所, 北京 100037,自然资源部成矿作用与资源评价重点实验室, 中国地质科学院矿产资源研究所, 北京 100037
Bauxite (aluminum)-type lithium resources and analysis of its development and utilization potential
ZHONG HaiRen,SUN Yan,YANG YueQing,WANG DengHong,HUANG Fan,ZHAO Zhi
(School of Earth Science and Resources, China University of Geoscience, Beijing 100083, China;Key Laboratory of Metallogeny and Mineral Assessment, Ministry of Natural Resources;Institute of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China)
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投稿时间:2019-06-23   修订日期:2019-07-08      网络发布日期:2019-08-26
中文摘要:铝土矿常共伴生Li、Zr、Nb、Sc等三稀元素,是潜在的巨大沉积型锂资源库。铝土矿中锂的赋存状态和分布规律研究,对丰富发展锂矿成矿理论和实现铝土矿资源的综合利用意义重大。文章系统收集了中国山西、河南、广西、贵州、云南和重庆等地区铝土矿床的地球化学、矿物学、年代学资料,探讨了锂的赋存、分布规律、影响因素和综合利用前景。黔北、渝南、豫西、晋中北铝土矿区的古风化壳沉积型富锂铝土矿(岩),成矿时代为晚石炭世本溪期和中二叠世梁山期,锂主要富集于含矿岩系中、下部致密块状铝土岩(高铝黏土岩)-硬质黏土岩中,其A/S值为1.1~1.8,w(SiO2)为25%~45%,w(Al2O3)介于35%~55%,而在土状铝土矿中w(Li)偏低。锂主要以离子交换和离子吸附2种形式赋存在高岭石、绿泥石、蒙脱石等黏土矿物中,并且当黏土矿物含量高、种类多时,w(Li)更高。铝土矿(岩)型锂是沉积型锂资源的重要而巨大的来源,黏土提锂在实验和工业上的进展为铝土矿中锂的综合利用提供了广阔前景。
Abstract:Bauxite is often associated with ‘three rare elements’ such as Li, Zr, Nb and Sc, and is a potentially huge sedimentary lithium resource pool. The study of the occurrence state and distribution of lithium in bauxite is of great significance for enriching the development of lithium mineralization theory and realizing the comprehensive utilization of bauxite resources. Geochemical, mineralogical and chronological data of bauxite deposits in Shanxi, Henan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan and Chongqing of China were collected systematically, and the distribution regularity, influencing factors and comprehensive utilization prospects of lithium were discussed. The paleocrusts of weathering sedimentary type of bauxite (aluminum) in the bauxite mining areas of northern Guizhou, southern Chongqing, western Henan, and north-central Shanxi are most enriched in lithium, and the metallogenic ages are the Benxi period of the Late Carboniferous and the Liangshan period of the Middle Permian. Lithium is mainly enriched in dense massive bauxite (high alumina clay rock)-hard clay rock in the middle and lower part of orebearing rock series. Its A/S value is 1.1~1.8, w(SiO2) is 25~45%, w(Al2O3) is 35~55%, while the lithium content is lower in earthy bauxite. Lithium is mainly present in the clay minerals such as (meta/poly)-kaolinite, chlorite, and montmorillonite., which are exchanged in an incompatible isomorphism form of cations in the layered silicate. When the type is high, the lithium content is high. And when there are many kinds of clay minerals and the amount of clay minerals is large, the lithium content is high. Bauxite (aluminum)-type lithium is an important and huge source of sedimentary lithium resources. The progress of lithium extraction in experiments and industry provides a broad prospect for the comprehensive utilization of lithium in bauxite.
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基金项目:本文得到国家重点研发计划“锂能源金属矿产基地深部探测技术示范”(编号:2017YFC0602700)项目、“我国锂能源金属成矿规律、靶区优选与重点查证”课题(编号:2017YFC0602701)、“华南重点矿集区稀有稀散和稀土矿产调查”(编号:DD20160056)和“中国矿产地质与成矿规律综合集成和服务”(编号:DD20160346)(矿产地质志)项目的联合资助
引用文本:
钟海仁,孙艳,杨岳清,王登红,黄凡,赵芝.2019.铝土矿(岩)型锂资源及其开发利用潜力[J].矿床地质,(4):898~916
ZHONG HaiRen,SUN Yan,YANG YueQing,WANG DengHong,HUANG Fan,ZHAO Zhi.2019.Bauxite (aluminum)-type lithium resources and analysis of its development and utilization potential[J].Mineral Deposits(4):898~916
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