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投稿时间：2022-06-20 修订日期：2023-01-06 网络发布日期：2023-03-07
Abstract:Porphyry deposits, globally the main sources of strategic minerals such as Cu, Mo, Au and Re, have always been the hot topics for international mineral deposit researchers and mining indreustry. The latest research indicates that porphyry deposits formed in either the magmatic arc setting of subduction zone or non-arc setting unrelated to subduction (mainly includes collisional orogenic setting, intracontinental orogenic setting, and in the edge and interior of re-activated craton), and the latter is widely formed in Chinese mainland. By summarizing the spatio-temporal distribution of global porphyry deposits, this paper focuse on discussing the research progress of two types of porphyry deposits from the aspects of petrogenesis and metallogenic dynamic mechanism, source of oreforming metals, alteration-mineralization zoning, and then discusses and summarizes the main ore-controlling factors and mechanisms controlling porphyry mineralization, as well as related research methods. The research shows that porphyry deposits are concentrated in the three major tectonic, and are mainly formed in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Among them, porphyry deposits in the Circum Pacific metallogenic domain are distributed unevenly in time and space, mainly developed in the West Continental margin of America, and mainly formed in several short periods since the Cretaceous; The porphyry deposits in the Paleo-Asian Ocean metallogenic domain are formed in the Ordovician to early Cretaceous, and show the metallogenic characteristics of "Western Cu-Au, eastern Cu-Mo, early Cu-Au and late Cu-Mo"; In the Tethys metallogenic domain, porphyry deposits are mainly formed since the Triassic, they are distributed along the orogenic belts, but the temporal distribution is uneven, and the porphyry mineralization formed in different periods in the same tectonic belt; At the same time, the porphyry deposits in China have correspondency, uniqueness and complexity with the three metallogenic domains. The ore-forming magmas and Cu(Au) metals in arc setting are mainly derived from metasomatic mantle wedge, and the subduction of oceanic lithosphere plate is the fundamental dynamic mechanism. In contrast, the oreforming magmas and Cu(Au) in non-arc setting are mainly derived from the mafic juvenile/delaminated lower crust or enriched mantle, and continental collision and intracontinental subduction are the main inducing mechanisms. The mineralization of porphyry deposits in collisional orogenic setting mainly forms in phyllic alteration stage superimposed on the K-silicatie zones, which is different from arc porphyry deposits. The two types of oreforming magmas are characterized by high oxygen fugacity, rich water content and volatile components. We suggest that magma source, magma properties and magma mixing may be the ore-controlling factors of large porphyry deposits. Hf-Nd isotope of magmatic rocks, magmatic accessory minerals such as zircon and apatite, and mafic enclaves may provide ideas to constrain the magmatic conditions and evolution process of porphyry mineralization.
keywords:geology porphyry deposit spatio-temporal distribution tectonic setting mineralization orecontrolling factors
YANG Hang,QIN KeZhang,WU Peng,WANG Feng,CHEN FuChuan.2023.Tectonic setting, mineralization and ore-controlling factors of porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits[J].Mineral Deposits42(1):128~156